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Bu Ali Sina is a famous philosopher of medicine and philosophy both in east and west. He is known as the father of medicine. His book Qanoon (The Canon of Medicine) is part of syllabus of most universities of Europe till 15 th century.
Family Background and Childhood Real name of Bu Ali Sina was Hussain. His father’s name was Abdullah. Family was famous with reference to Ibn-e-Sina that was his 5 th forefather. Abdullah was the ruler of a place of Bukhara.
Bu Ali Sina was born in August 980 in Bukhara. He was a contemporary of. He learnt the Arabic subjects and completed them when he was 10 years old. He studied philosophy, mathematics and medicine for six years. In age of seventeen he treated a king Nooh Ibn-e-Mansoor who was suffering from dangerous disease. When the king recovered, he gave permission to Bu Ali Sina for studying in his royal library along with other prizes.
Ups and Downs of Life The rule of Samani family was ended in 1004. After this Bu Ali Sina served the ruler Khwarzim for some years.
After this he was busy in study of medicine and philosophy in Jarjan. From there he went to Hamdan and was appointed as the minister of Sham-us-Daula. Then army revolted against them and ordered to kill the minister. Bu Ali Sina escaped from there safely. After some years government of king of Isfahan was established.
Bu Ali Sina became busy in writing books. Books of Bu Ali Sina Bu Ali Sina wrote many books.
Among his books Kitab ul Shifa and Qanoon Fi Al Tib are most famous. Bu Ali Sina also wrote an encyclopedia named Lisan ul Arab that consist of knowledge of all subjects. Bu Ali Sina was the master of Philosophy, Metaphysics, Logic, Mathematics and Medicine. His book Al-Qanoon was part of syllabus in most universities of Euorpe till 15 th century. In the university of Mont Plair and Leuven, his books were in syllabus til 1650. All of his books have been translated in European languages.
Death Bu Ali Sina was used to intense mental hard work. Once he was going with army on an expedition and severely fell ill. Bu Ali Sina died in June 1037.
. Avicenna (; also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina;: ابن سینا; c. 980 – June 1037) was a who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the. He has been described as the father of early modern medicine.
Of the 450 he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. His most famous works are, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and, a which became a standard medical text at many medieval and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York.
Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on, and works of. Contents. Name Avicenna is a of the Ibn Sīnā ( ابن سينا), meaning 'Son of Sina', a rare of uncertain etymology.
However, Avicenna was not the son, but the great-great-grandson of a man named Sina. His was Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Sīnā ( أبو علي الحسين بن عبد الله بن الحسن بن علي بن سينا). Circumstances Ibn Sina created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of, and texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman ( and, and ) texts translated by the school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and systems, and. The in the eastern part of, and Central Asia as well as the in the western part of Persia and provided a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids, rivaled as a cultural capital of the.
The study of the and the thrived in such a scholarly atmosphere. Philosophy, and were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents. And had provided and knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna had access to the great libraries of, and.
Various texts (such as the 'Ahd with Bahmanyar) show that he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time. Describes how before Avicenna left he had met (a famous scientist and astronomer), (a renowned mathematician), (a respected philosopher) and Abu al-Khayr Khammar (a great physician).
Biography Early life Avicenna was born c. 980 in Afshana, a village near (in present-day ), the of the, a Persian in and. His mother, named Sitāra, was from Bukhara; his father, Abdullāh, was a respected scholar from, an important town of the, in what is today,. His father worked in the government of in the village Kharmasain, a regional power. After five years, his younger brother, Mahmoud, was born.
Avicenna first began to learn the and literature in such a way that when he was ten years old he had essentially learned all of them. According to his autobiography, Avicenna had by the age of 10. He learned from an greengrocer, Mahmoud Massahi and he began to learn more from a wandering scholar who gained a livelihood by curing the sick and teaching the young.
He also studied (Islamic jurisprudence) under the scholar Ismail al-Zahid. Avicenna was taught some extent of philosophy books such as Introduction 's, 's by an unpopular philosopher, Abu Abdullah Nateli, who claimed philosophizing. As a teenager, he was greatly troubled by the of, which he could not understand until he read 's commentary on the work. For the next year and a half, he studied philosophy, in which he encountered greater obstacles.
In such moments of baffled inquiry, he would leave his books, perform the requisite, then go to the mosque, and continue in till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night, he would continue his studies, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the Metaphysics of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure, until one day they found illumination, from the little commentary by, which he bought at a bookstall for the small sum of three dirhams. So great was his joy at the discovery, made with the help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed alms upon the poor. He turned to medicine at 16, and not only learned medical theory, but also by gratuitous attendance of the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. The teenager achieved full status as a qualified physician at age 18, and found that 'Medicine is no hard and thorny science, like mathematics and metaphysics, so I soon made great progress; I became an excellent doctor and began to treat patients, using approved remedies.'
The youthful physician's fame spread quickly, and he treated many patients without asking for payment. A number of theories have been proposed regarding Avicenna's (school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence). Medieval historian Ẓahīr al-dīn al-Bayhaqī (d.
1169) considered Avicenna to be a follower of the. On the other hand, along with Aisha Khan and Jules J. Janssens demonstrated that Avicenna was a. However, the 14th century according to, maintained that he was most likely a. Conversely, citing a rejection of an invitation of the Sunni Governor Sultan Mahmoud Ghazanavi by Avicenna to his court, believes that Avicenna was an. Similar disagreements exist on the background of Avicenna's family, whereas some writers considered them Sunni, some more recent writers contested that they were Shia. Adulthood.
Gravestone of Avicenna, Iran The remaining ten or twelve years of Ibn Sīnā's life were spent in the service of the ruler (also known as Ala al-Dawla), whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns. During these years he began to study literary matters and, instigated, it is asserted, by criticisms on his style. A severe, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Ibn Sina could scarcely stand. On a similar occasion the disease returned; with difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, and resigned himself to his fate.
His friends advised him to slow down and take life moderately. He refused, however, stating that: 'I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length'. On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and read through the every three days until his death. He died in June 1037, in his fifty-eighth year, in the month of and was buried in, Iran. Philosophy Ibn Sīnā wrote extensively on, especially the subjects, and, including treatises named Logic and Metaphysics.
Most of his works were written in – then the language of science in the Middle East – and some in. Of linguistic significance even to this day are a few books that he wrote in nearly pure Persian language (particularly the Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Philosophy for Ala' ad-Dawla'). Ibn Sīnā's commentaries on Aristotle often criticized the philosopherencouraging a lively debate in the spirit of.
Avicenna's scheme of 'emanations' became fundamental in the (school of theological discourse) in the 12th century. His Book of Healing became available in Europe in partial Latin translation some fifty years after its composition, under the title Sufficientia, and some authors have identified a 'Latin Avicennism' as flourishing for some time, paralleling the more influential, but suppressed by the. Avicenna's psychology and theory of knowledge influenced and, while his metaphysics influenced the thought of. Metaphysical doctrine. This section may be too technical for most readers to understand.
Please to, without removing the technical details. (January 2014) Early Islamic philosophy and, imbued as it is with, distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism between essence and existence.
Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. The philosophy of Ibn Sīnā, particularly that part relating to metaphysics, owes much to al-Farabi. The search for a definitive Islamic philosophy separate from can be seen in what is left of his work.
Following al-Farabi's lead, Avicenna initiated a full-fledged inquiry into the question of being, in which he distinguished between essence ( Mahiat) and existence ( Wujud). He argued that the fact of existence can not be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things, and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things. Existence must, therefore, be due to an that necessitates, imparts, gives, or adds existence to an essence. To do so, the cause must be an existing thing and coexist with its effect. Avicenna's consideration of the essence-attributes question may be elucidated in terms of his ontological analysis of the modalities of being; namely impossibility, contingency, and necessity. Avicenna argued that the impossible being is that which cannot exist, while the contingent in itself ( mumkin bi-dhatihi) has the potentiality to be or not to be without entailing a contradiction. When actualized, the contingent becomes a 'necessary existent due to what is other than itself' ( wajib al-wujud bi-ghayrihi).
Thus, contingency-in-itself is potential beingness that could eventually be actualized by an external cause other than itself. The metaphysical structures of necessity and contingency are different. Necessary being due to itself ( wajib al-wujud bi-dhatihi) is true in itself, while the contingent being is 'false in itself' and 'true due to something else other than itself'. The necessary is the source of its own being without borrowed existence. It is what always exists. The Necessary exists 'due-to-Its-Self', and has no quiddity/essence ( mahiyya) other than existence ( wujud).
Furthermore, It is 'One' ( wahid ahad) since there cannot be more than one 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' without differentia (fasl) to distinguish them from each other. Yet, to require differentia entails that they exist 'due-to-themselves' as well as 'due to what is other than themselves'; and this is contradictory. However, if no differentia distinguishes them from each other, then there is no sense in which these 'Existents' are not one and the same. Avicenna adds that the 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' has no genus ( jins), nor a definition ( hadd), nor a counterpart ( nadd), nor an opposite ( did), and is detached ( bari) from matter ( madda), quality ( kayf), quantity ( kam), place ( ayn), situation ( wad), and time ( waqt). Avicenna's theology on metaphysical issues ( ilāhiyyāt) has been criticized by some, among them, and.
While discussing the views of the theists among the Greek philosophers, namely, and in Al-Munqidh min ad-Dalal ('Deliverance from Error'), al-Ghazali noted that the Greek philosophers 'must be taxed with unbelief, as must their partisans among the Muslim philosophers, such as Ibn Sina and al-Farabi and their likes.' He added that 'None, however, of the Muslim philosophers engaged so much in transmitting Aristotle's lore as did the two men just mentioned.
The sum of what we regard as the authentic philosophy of Aristotle, as transmitted by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, can be reduced to three parts: a part which must be branded as unbelief; a part which must be stigmatized as innovation; and a part which need not be repudiated at all. Argument for God's existence. Main article: Avicenna made an for the which would be known as the ' (: al-burhan al-siddiqin). Avicenna argued that there must be a 'necessary existent' (Arabic: wajib al-wujud), an entity that cannot not exist and through a series of argument, he identified it with. Present-day called this argument one of the most influential medieval arguments for God's existence, and Avicenna's biggest contribution to the history of philosophy.
Al-Biruni correspondence Correspondence between Ibn Sina (with his student Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Ma'sumi) and has survived in which they debated and the. Abu Rayhan began by asking Avicenna eighteen questions, ten of which were criticisms of Aristotle's. Theology Avicenna was a devout Muslim and sought to reconcile rational philosophy with Islamic theology. His aim was to prove the existence of God and His creation of the world scientifically and through and. Avicenna's views on Islamic theology (and philosophy) were enormously influential, forming part of the core of the curriculum at Islamic religious schools until the 19th century. Avicenna wrote a number of short treatises dealing with Islamic theology.
These included treatises on the (whom he viewed as 'inspired philosophers'), and also on various scientific and philosophical interpretations of the Quran, such as how Quranic corresponds to his own philosophical system. In general these treatises linked his philosophical writings to Islamic religious ideas; for example, the body's afterlife. There are occasional brief hints and allusions in his longer works however that Avicenna considered philosophy as the only sensible way to distinguish real prophecy from illusion. He did not state this more clearly because of the political implications of such a theory, if prophecy could be questioned, and also because most of the time he was writing shorter works which concentrated on explaining his theories on philosophy and theology clearly, without digressing to consider matters which could only be properly considered by other philosophers. Later interpretations of Avicenna's philosophy split into three different schools; those (such as ) who continued to apply his philosophy as a system to interpret later political events and scientific advances; those (such as ) who considered Avicenna's theological works in isolation from his wider philosophical concerns; and those (such as ) who selectively used parts of his philosophy to support their own attempts to gain greater spiritual insights through a variety of mystical means. It was the theological interpretation championed by those such as al-Razi which eventually came to predominate in the.
Avicenna by the age of ten, and as an adult, he wrote five treatises commenting on from the Quran. One of these texts included the Proof of Prophecies, in which he comments on several Quranic verses and holds the Quran in high esteem. Avicenna argued that the Islamic prophets should be considered higher than philosophers. Thought experiments.
Main article: While he was imprisoned in the castle of Fardajan near Hamadhan, Avicenna wrote his famous ' – literally falling man – to demonstrate human and the substantiality and immateriality of the soul. Avicenna believed his 'Floating Man' thought experiment demonstrated that the soul is a substance, and claimed humans cannot doubt their own consciousness, even in a situation that prevents all sensory data input. The thought experiment told its readers to imagine themselves created all at once while suspended in the air, isolated from all, which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. He argued that, in this scenario, one would still have. Because it is conceivable that a person, suspended in air while cut off from, would still be capable of determining his own existence, the thought experiment points to the conclusions that the soul is a perfection, independent of the body, and an immaterial substance.
The conceivability of this 'Floating Man' indicates that the soul is perceived intellectually, which entails the soul's separateness from the body. Avicenna referred to the living human, particularly the, which he believed to be the by which God communicates to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature. Following is an English translation of the argument: One of us (i.e. A human being) should be imagined as having been created in a single stroke; created perfect and complete but with his vision obscured so that he cannot perceive external entities; created falling through air or a void, in such a manner that he is not struck by the firmness of the air in any way that compels him to feel it, and with his limbs separated so that they do not come in contact with or touch each other.
Then contemplate the following: can he be assured of the existence of himself? He does not have any doubt in that his self exists, without thereby asserting that he has any exterior limbs, nor any internal organs, neither heart nor brain, nor any one of the exterior things at all; but rather he can affirm the existence of himself, without thereby asserting there that this self has any extension in space. Even if it were possible for him in that state to imagine a hand or any other limb, he would not imagine it as being a part of his self, nor as a condition for the existence of that self; for as you know that which is asserted is different from that which is not asserted, and that which is inferred is different from that which is not inferred. Therefore the self, the existence of which has been asserted, is a unique characteristic, in as much that it is not as such the same as the body or the limbs, which have not been ascertained. Thus that which is ascertained (i.e.
The self), does have a way of being sure of the existence of the soul as something other than the body, even something non-bodily; this he knows, this he should understand intuitively, if it is that he is ignorant of it and needs to be beaten with a stick to realize it. — Ibn Sina, Kitab Al-Shifa, On the Soul However, Avicenna posited the brain as the place where reason interacts with sensation. Sensation prepares the soul to receive rational concepts from the universal Agent Intellect. The first knowledge of the flying person would be 'I am,' affirming his or her essence. That essence could not be the body, obviously, as the flying person has no sensation.
Thus, the knowledge that 'I am' is the core of a human being: the soul exists and is self-aware. Avicenna thus concluded that the idea of the is not logically dependent on any physical, and that the soul should not be seen in, but as a primary given, a. The body is unnecessary; in relation to it, the soul is its perfection.
In itself, the soul is an immaterial substance. The Canon of Medicine. How to activate an unactivated psn cards. 12th-century manuscript of the Canon, kept at the.
Avicenna authored a five-volume medical encyclopedia: The Canon of Medicine ( Al-Qanun fi't-Tibb). It was used as the standard medical textbook in the Islamic world and Europe up to the 18th century. The Canon still plays an important role in. Liber Primus Naturalium Avicenna considered whether events like rare diseases or disorders have natural causes.
He used the example of to explain his perception that causal reasons exist for all medical events. This view of medical phenomena anticipated developments in the by seven centuries. The Book of Healing.
This section should include only a brief summary of. See for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text. (July 2016) Earth sciences Ibn Sīnā wrote on such as in The Book of Healing.
While discussing the formation of, he explained: Either they are the effects of upheavals of the crust of the earth, such as might occur during a violent earthquake, or they are the effect of water, which, cutting itself a new route, has denuded the valleys, the strata being of different kinds, some soft, some hard. It would require a long period of time for all such changes to be accomplished, during which the mountains themselves might be somewhat diminished in size.
Philosophy of science In the Al-Burhan ( On Demonstration) section of The Book of Healing, Avicenna discussed the and described an early of. He discusses Aristotle's and significantly diverged from it on several points. Avicenna discussed the issue of a proper methodology for scientific inquiry and the question of 'How does one acquire the first principles of a science?' He asked how a scientist would arrive at 'the initial or of a science without inferring them from some more basic premises?'
He explains that the ideal situation is when one grasps that a 'relation holds between the terms, which would allow for absolute, universal certainty'. Avicenna then adds two further methods for arriving at the: the ancient Aristotelian method of ( istiqra), and the method of and ( tajriba). Avicenna criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that 'it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide.' In its place, he develops a 'method of experimentation as a means for scientific inquiry.' Logic An early formal system of was studied by Avicenna. Although he did not develop a real theory of temporal propositions, he did study the relationship between temporalis and the implication.
Avicenna's work was further developed by and became the dominant system of until modern times. Avicennian logic also influenced several early European logicians such as and. Avicenna endorsed the law of noncontradiction proposed by Aristotle, that a fact could not be both true and false at the same time and in the same sense of the terminology used.
He stated, 'Anyone who denies the law of noncontradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned.' Physics In, Ibn Sīnā, in The Book of Healing, developed a theory of, in which he made a distinction between the inclination (tendency to motion) and of a, and concluded that motion was a result of an inclination ( mayl) transferred to the projectile by the thrower, and that in a vacuum would not cease. He viewed inclination as a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as. The theory of motion presented by Avicenna was probably influenced by the 6th-century Alexandrian scholar.
Avicenna's is a less sophisticated variant of the developed by in the 14th century. It is unclear if Buridan was influenced by Avicenna, or by Philoponus directly. In, Ibn Sina was among those who argued that light had a speed, observing that 'if the perception of is due to the emission of some sort of by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite.' He also provided a wrong explanation of the phenomenon. Described Avicenna's ('Ibn Sīnā') theory on the rainbow as follows: Independent observation had demonstrated to him that the bow is not formed in the dark cloud but rather in the very thin mist lying between the cloud and the sun or observer. The cloud, he thought, serves simply as the background of this thin substance, much as a quicksilver lining is placed upon the rear surface of the glass in a mirror.
Ibn Sīnā would change the place not only of the bow, but also of the color formation, holding the iridescence to be merely a subjective sensation in the eye. In 1253, a Latin text entitled Speculum Tripartitum stated the following regarding Avicenna's theory on: Avicenna says in his book of heaven and earth, that heat is generated from motion in external things. Psychology Avicenna's legacy in classical psychology is primarily embodied in the Kitab al-nafs parts of his Kitab al-shifa ( The Book of Healing) and Kitab al-najat ( The Book of Deliverance). These were known in Latin under the title (treatises 'on the soul'). – Notably, Avicenna develops what is called the 'flying man' argument in the Psychology of The Cure I.1.7 as defense of the argument that the soul is without quantitative extension, which has an affinity with 's cogito argument (or what designates as a form of an ' epoche').
Avicenna's psychology requires that connection between the body and soul be strong enough to ensure the soul's individuation, but weak enough to allow for its immortality. Avicenna grounds his psychology on physiology, which means his account of the soul is one that deals almost entirely with the natural science of the body and its abilities of perception. Thus, the philosopher's connection between the soul and body is explained almost entirely by his understanding of perception; in this way, bodily perception interrelates with the immaterial human intellect.
In sense perception, the perceiver senses the form of the object; first, by perceiving features of the object by our external senses. This sensory information is supplied to the internal senses, which merge all the pieces into a whole, unified conscious experience.
This process of perception and abstraction is the nexus of the soul and body, for the material body may only perceive material objects, while the immaterial soul may only receive the immaterial, universal forms. The way the soul and body interact in the final abstraction of the universal from the concrete particular is the key to their relationship and interaction, which takes place in the physical body.
The soul completes the action of intellection by accepting forms that have been abstracted from matter. This process requires a concrete particular (material) to be abstracted into the universal intelligible (immaterial). The material and immaterial interact through the Active Intellect, which is a 'divine light' containing the intelligible forms. The Active Intellect reveals the universals concealed in material objects much like the sun makes color available to our eyes. Other contributions Astronomy and astrology Avicenna wrote an attack on astrology titled Resāla fī ebṭāl aḥkām al-nojūm, in which he cited passages from the Quran to dispute the power of astrology to foretell the future. He believed that each planet had some influence on the earth, but argued against astrologers being able to determine the exact effects. Avicenna's astronomical writings had some influence on later writers, although in general his work could be considered less developed than.
One important feature of his writing is that he considers mathematical astronomy as a separate discipline to astrology. He criticized Aristotle's view of the receiving their light from the, stating that the stars are self-luminous, and believed that the are also self-luminous. He claimed to have observed. This is possible, as there was a transit on May 24, 1032, but Avicenna did not give the date of his observation, and modern scholars have questioned whether he could have observed the transit from his location at that time; he may have mistaken a sunspot for Venus. He used his transit observation to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology, i.e. The sphere of Venus comes before the sphere of the Sun when moving out from the Earth in the prevailing model. He also wrote the Summary of the Almagest, (based on 's ), with an appended treatise 'to bring that which is stated in the Almagest and what is understood from Natural Science into conformity'.
For example, Avicenna considers the motion of the solar, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed. Chemistry Ibn Sīnā invented steam distillation and used it to produce essential oils such as rose essence, forming the foundation of what later became. Unlike, for example, al-Razi, Ibn Sīnā explicitly disputed the theory of the commonly believed by: Those of the chemical craft know well that no change can be effected in the different species of substances, though they can produce the appearance of such change. Four works on alchemy attributed to Avicenna were translated into as:. Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae. Declaratio Lapis physici Avicennae filio sui Aboali.
Avicennae de congelatione et conglutinatione lapidum. Avicennae ad Hasan Regem epistola de Re recta Liber Aboali Abincine de Anima in arte Alchemiae was the most influential, having influenced later chemists and alchemists such as. However Anawati argues (following Ruska) that the de Anima is a fake by a Spanish author. Similarly the Declaratio is believed not to be actually by Avicenna. The third work ( The Book of Minerals) is agreed to be Avicenna's writing, adapted from the Kitab al-Shifa ( Book of the Remedy).
Ibn Sina classified minerals into stones, fusible substances, sulfurs, and salts, building on the ideas of Aristotle and Jabir. The epistola de Re recta is somewhat less sceptical of alchemy; Anawati argues that it is by Avicenna, but written earlier in his career when he had not yet firmly decided that transmutation was impossible. Poetry Almost half of Ibn Sīnā's works are versified. His poems appear in both Arabic and Persian.
As an example, claims that the following Persian verses are incorrectly attributed to, and were originally written by Ibn Sīnā. Inside view of the Avicenna Mausoleum, designed by in 1945–1950 As early as the 13th century when depicted him in Limbo alongside the virtuous non-Christian thinkers in his such as, and, Avicenna has been recognized by both East and West, as one of the great figures in intellectual history., the author of The History of Science, described Ibn Sīnā as 'one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history' and called him 'the most famous and one of the most famous of all races, places, and times.' He was one of the Islamic world's leading writers in the field of medicine. Along with, and, Ibn Sīnā is considered an important compiler of early Muslim medicine.
He is remembered in the Western as a major historical figure who made important contributions to medicine and the European. His medical texts were unusual in that where controversy existed between Galen and Aristotle's views on medical matters (such as anatomy), he preferred to side with Aristotle, where necessary updating Aristotle's position to take into account post-Aristotelian advances in anatomical knowledge. Aristotle's dominant intellectual influence among medieval European scholars meant that Avicenna's linking of Galen's medical writings with Aristotle's philosophical writings in the Canon of Medicine (along with its comprehensive and logical organisation of knowledge) significantly increased Avicenna's importance in medieval Europe in comparison to other Islamic writers on medicine. His influence following translation of the Canon was such that from the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth centuries he was ranked with Hippocrates and Galen as one of the acknowledged authorities, princeps medicorum ('prince of physicians'). Modern reception In present-day Iran, Afghanistan and, he is considered a national icon, and is often regarded as among the greatest Persians. A monument was erected outside the Bukhara museum.
The in was built in 1952. In Hamadan (Iran), the biotechnology in Tehran (Iran), the ibn Sīnā Tajik State Medical University in, at, India, in and in, Pakistan Ibne Sina Balkh Medical School in his native province of in, Ibni Sina Faculty Of Medicine of Ankara University, the main classroom building (the Avicenna Building) of the, and Ibn Sina Integrated School in Marawi City (Philippines) are all named in his honour. His portrait hangs in the Hall of the Avicenna Faculty of Medicine in the. There is a crater on the Moon named and a genus. Image of Avicenna on the The, established in 2003, is awarded every two years by and rewards individuals and groups for their achievements in the field of. The aim of the award is to promote ethical reflection on issues raised by advances in science and technology, and to raise global awareness of the importance of ethics in science.
The (2008–15; now the ) list universities and schools where doctors, public health practitioners, pharmacists and others, are educated. The original project team stated 'Why Avicenna? Noted for his synthesis of knowledge from both east and west. He has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences. The use of Avicenna's name symbolises the worldwide partnership that is needed for the promotion of health services of high quality.'
The 'moving wall' represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a 'zero' moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication. Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available. Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title. Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.